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Well-organized and designed database models can save time during application developments. Application software must be written to meet the end user’s needs. A Database is a collection of information related to a particular subject or purpose, such as tracking customer orders or resources, management.

A Data Model emphasizes features of interest to the user and makes its interaction with a Database Management System (DBMS) transparent. Most Database Designer use Case tool for frequent modeling. Database have tables, forms, and other objects it is important to take time to design your database. A good database design is the keystone to creating a database that does what you want it to do effectively, accurately, and efficiently. A good modeler is like a good reporter asking What, When, How, Where, Why.

The Relational Database Model, which uses relations and relational operations, is most popular version today and is found in many commercial database management systems. A sound database leads to Database Management System (DBMS) that is sharable, reusable, flexible and the accurately reflect the business it supports. Databases need a great deal of memory. They are used extensively in the business world on systems powerful enough to accommodate them.

Steps in Designing a Database

These are the basic steps in designing a database:

Determine the purpose of your database.
Determine the tables you need in the database.
Determine the fields you need in the tables.
Identify fields with unique values.
Determine the relationships between tables.
Refine your design.
Add data and create other database objects.

Determine the purpose of your database

The first step in designing a Oracle RDBMS database is to determine the purpose of the database and how it's to be used. Need to know what information you want from the database. From that, you can determine what subjects you need to store facts about (the tables) and what facts you need to store about each subject (the fields in the tables).

 Talk to people who will use the database. Brainstorm about the questions you'd like the database to answer. Sketch out the reports you'd like it to produce. Gather the forms you currently use to record your data. Examine well-designed databases similar to the one you are designing.

 Determine the tables you need

 Determining the tables can be the trickiest step in the database design process. That's because the results we want from your database — the reports you want to print, the forms you want to use, the questions you want answered — don't necessarily provide clues about the structure of the tables that produce them.

 A table should not contain duplicate information, and information should not be duplicated between tables. When each piece of information is stored in only one table, you update it in one place. This is more efficient, and also eliminates the possibility of duplicate entries that contain different information. Each table should contain information about one subject.

 Determine the fields you need

 Each table contains information about the same subject, and each field in a table contains individual facts about the table's subject. Relate each field directly to the subject of the table. Include all the information you need. Store information in its smallest logical parts (for example, First Name and Last Name, rather than Name).

 Identify fields with unique values

 Database must include a field or set of fields that uniquely identifies each individual record in the table. Such a field or set of fields is called a primary key.

 Determine the relationships between tables

 Divide information into tables and identified primary key fields, Relate information back together again in meaningful ways. To do this, define relationships between tables.

 Refine the design

 After you have designed the tables, fields, and relationships you need, it's time to study the design and detect any flaws that might remain. It is easier to change your database design now, rather than after we have filled the tables with data.

 Enter data and create other database objects

 Create any queries, forms, reports, queries, and modules that you may want. Enter any random data to test any logical and syntax errors.

 Oracle Upper Hand

 Oracle is the latest generation of the world's leading database and the first designed specifically to be development and deployment platform. Oracle enhances the industry-leading technology with special features that make it extremely easy to create robust and scalable applications.

 Oracle extends Oracle's proven technology leadership in the areas of transaction processing, data warehousing, mobile computing, and high availability to handle the demanding performance, business intelligence, and continuous access needs of users. Oracle is built to help Oracle's partners expand into new markets and attract new clients.


Areas Of Database

Current Industries

Multinational companies

Audit Firms, Importers, Manufacturer

Industry and commerce

Textile, Chemical, Cement, Steel Mill

Government Agencies

Bureau, Secetariate, Customs

Local and Foreign banks

Citibank, Habib Bank, ABM, ANZ

Semi-government corporations

Wapda, KESC, Water Board, Telecom

Public utilities

Utility Stores, Customer Centers

Healthcare institutions

Hospitals, Dispensaries, Clinics

Educational institutions

Schools, Colleges, Universities, SOS

Small innovators

Corporate, Traders, Investors


PIA, PAF , Schon

Hotel Management

Hotels, Restaurants, Café, Guest House

Nuclear Center

Nuclear Plants, Research Laboratories


Newspaper, TV, Radio, Internet


Water, Gas, Electric, Telephone


CGI, Online shopping

Financial Accounting

Inventory, Payroll


Chemical Reactors, Laboratories

House Hold

Kitchen Ware, Utensils

Quality Management

Data Collection, Testing Methods


Finance, Accounting


Game, Scoring, Videos


Sales, Purchases

Personal Planning

Daily Dairy, Address Books