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In recent years, Database Management Systems (DBMS) have established themselves as the primary means of data storage for information systems ranging from large commercial transaction processing applications to PC-based desktop applications. At the heart of most of today's information systems is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).

RDBMS have been the workhorse for data management operations for over a decade and continue to evolve and mature, providing sophisticated storage, retrieval, and distribution functions to enterprise-wide data processing and information management systems.

wpe1.jpg (5532 bytes)Compared to the file systems, relational database management systems provide organizations with the capability to easily integrate and leverage the massive amounts of operational data into meaningful information systems. The evolution of high-powered database engines such as Oracle, SAP, SQL Server, Bann, Informix, Sybase etc has fostered the development of advanced "enabling" technologies including client / server, data warehousing, and online analytical processing, all of which comprise the core of today's state-of-the-art information management systems.

The Relational Database Model

Database is an integrated collection of related data. Given a specific data item, the structure of a database facilitates the access to data related to it. Relational database is a type of database based in the relational model; non-relational databases commonly use a hierarchical, network, or object-oriented model as their basis. Finally,a relationalwpe3.jpg (4623 bytes) database management system is the software that manages a relational database. These systems come in several varieties, ranging from single-user desktop systems to full-featured, global, enterprise-wide systems.

Hierarchical and Network Models

Most of the database management systems used by commercial applications today are based on one of three basic models: the hierarchical model, the network model, or the relational model.

wpe5.jpg (5664 bytes)The first commercially available database management systems were of the CODASYL type, and many of them are still in use with mainframe-based, COBOL applications. Both network and hierarchical databases are quite complex in that they rely on the use of permanent internal pointers to relate records to each other. For example, in an accounts payable application, a vendor record might contain a physical pointer in its record structure that points to purchase order records. Each purchase order record in turn contains pointers to purchase order line item records.

The process of inserting, updating, and deleting records using these types of databases requires synchronization of the pointers, a task that must be performed by the application. As you might imagine, this pointer maintenance requires a significant amount of application code (usually written in COBOL) that at times can be quite cumbersome.

Elements of the Relational Model

Relational databases rely on the actual attribute values as opposed to internal pointers to link records. Instead of using an internal pointer from the vendor record to purchase order records, you would link the purchase order record to the vendor record using a common attribute from each record, such as the vendor identification number.

There are three basic components of the relational model:

relational data structures
constraints that govern the organization of the data structures
operations that are performed on the data structures.

Relational Data Structures

tThe relational model supports a single, "logical" structure called a relation, a two-dimensional data structure commonly called a table in the "physical" database. Attributes represent the atomic data elements that are related by the relation.

Key Values and Referential Integrity

 Attributes are grouped with other attributes based on their dependency on a primary key value. A primary key is an attribute or group of attributes that uniquely identifies a row in a table. A table has only one primary key, and as a rule, every table has one. Because primary key values are used as identifiers, they cannot be null.

 Linking one relation to another typically involves an attribute that is common to both relations. The common attributes are usually a primary key from one table and a foreign key from the other.

Relational Algebra

 The relational model defines the operations that are permitted on a relation or group of relations. There are unary and binary relational operators, each of which result in another relation. Binary operator types indicate that the operation uses two relations as operands; unary operators require a single relation as an operand.

RDBMS Components

 Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the software, and the data dictionary, which consists of the system-level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database.

RDMS Kernel
Data Dictionary   

The RDBMS Kernel

RDBMS Kernel is an operating system (or set of subsystems), designed specifically for controlling data access; its primary functions are storing, retrieving, and securing data. Like an operating system.

The Data Dictionary

A fundamental difference between an RDBMS and other database and file systems is in the way that they access data. A RDBMS enables you to reference physical data in a more abstract, logical fashion, providing ease and flexibility in developing application code. Programs using an RDBMS access data through a database engine, creating independence from the actual data source and insulating applications from the details of the underlying physical data structures.

This data independence is wpe6.jpg (6263 bytes)possible because of the RDBMS's data dictionary. The data dictionary stores meta-data (data about data) for all the objects that reside in the database. Oracle7's data dictionary is a set of tables and database objects that is stored in a special area of the database and maintained exclusively by the Oracle7 kernel. The information in the data dictionary validates the existence of the objects, provides access to them, and maps the actual physical storage location.