Make your own free website on

Back Home Next





 Written Books


Technical Report

Survey Reports





Contact Me




 It is a systematic attempt to specify threats to the project plan estimates, schedule, resource loading, etc. After identification and predictable risks, the Supervisor or Project Manager takes steps towards avoiding and controlling them.


Generic Risks
Product Specific Risks

 Generic Risks

Generic Risks are potential threats to every software project.

 Product Specific Risks

They are identifying with a clear understanding of the technology, the people, and the environment. Project Plan are created and examined by the expertise.

 Tom Gilb states…. "If you don’t actively attack the risks, they will actively attack you"

Methods for Identifying Risks

To create a risk item checklist

Product Size--- Risks associated with the overall size of the software to be built or modified. 

Business Impact--- Risks associated with constraints imposed by management or the marketplace.

 Customer Characteristics---Risks associated with the sophistication of the customer and developer’s ability to communicate with the customer in a timely manner.

 Process Definition---Risks associated with the degree to which the software process has been defined and is followed by the development organization.

 Development Environment--- Risks associated with the availability and quality of the tools to be used to build the product.

 Technology To Be Built--- Risks associated with the complexity of the system to be built and the newness of the technology that is package by the system.

 Staff Size and Experience--- Risks associated with the overall technical and project experience of the software engineers who will do the work.


 Project Risks is directly proportional to product size

 The following risks item checklist identifies generic risks associated with product (software) size. The current information is compared with the past experience. Then the potential of the risk is judge.

Estimate size of product in number of programs, files, and transaction?
Number of users of the product?
Size of Database created or used by the product?


Business methodology and marketing strategies are sometimes come into direct conflict with the technical realities. The Generic Risks associated with business impact. The current information is compared with the past experience. Then the potential of the risk is judge.

Effect of this product on company revenue?
Number of customers who will use this product?
Number of other product use with this product?
Costs associated with the late delivery?
Cost associated in case of a defective product?


All customers are not created equal

Needs, Attitudes & Personality

Customers know what they want Others know what they don’t want
Some enjoys being customer, the tension, the negotiation, the psychological rewards Others prefer not to be customers at all.
Some happily accepts things even a poor product Other will complaint bitterly when quality is lacking
Some will show their appreciation when quality is good Few will complain no matter what

Customer Vs Supplier

Some know the product and producer well Other may be faceless
Communicating with the producer only by written correspondence Others will be hurried talk on telephone calls
Some are profound by the risk and threats in developing the product Others give threats to the producer for reduction in cost in case of delay


The risk item checklist identifies generic risks associated with different customers:

Have you work in the past? Does the customer have the solid idea of what is required?
Is the customer willing to establish rapid communication links with the developer?
Is the customer having the background technical knowledge?
Does the customer understand the software process?


If the software process is ill defined; if analysis, design, and testing are conducted in ad hoc fashion; if quality is a concept that everyone agrees is important, but no one acts to achieve in any tangible way, then the project is at risk.

Does your senior management support a written policy statement for standard process in development?
Has your organization developed a written description of the process?
Any formal technical reviews of the test procedures and test case conducted regularly?
Are specific methods used for software analysis?
Are software tools used to support planning and tracking activities?


Working in a modern technology is every person’s dream, but it is too risky.

 Is the technology to be built new to your organization?

Do the customer’s requirement demand the creation of new algorithms or input or output technology?


Inappropriate or ineffective tools can blunt the efforts of even a skilled practitioner. The software-engineering environment supports the project team, the process, and the product. But if the environment is not suitable the risk becomes high.

Is a software project management tools available?
Are tools for analysis and design available?
Is on-line help and documentation for the tools available?


Are the best people available?
Do the people have the right combination of skill?
Has staff received necessary training?
If the answer is "no" further investigation should be done to reduce the risk potential.


Project Manager identifies the risk drivers that effect software risk components, performance, cost, support and schedule.

Performance risk—the degree of uncertainty that the product will meet its requirements and be fit for use.
Cost risk—the degree of uncertainty that the project budget will be maintained.
Support risk-- the degree of uncertainty that the software will be easy to correct, adept, and enhance.
Schedule risk—the degree of uncertainty that the project schedule will be maintained and that the product will be delivered on time.

 Thus categories impact based on characteristics that best fits the description in Risk Projection.