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Banking is the life-blood of commerce. Currency notes and coins cannot cope with ever-increasing demand for money arising from an increase in the number and size of business transactions.

Origin Of Banking

Banking is an ancient institution. It is said to have developed in Greece, Rome and India over 2500 years ago. The present-day banker shows traces of each of the ancestors.

What a Bank Is?

‘Bank’ itself is derived from the words ‘banco’, ‘bancus’ or ‘banque’, meaning a bench. The early bankers, the Jews in Lombardy, transacted their business at benches in the market place. When a banker failed, his ‘banco’ was broken up by the people, whence the word ‘bankrupt’.

Agricultural Bank

These bank finance the agriculturists. The Co-operative Credit Society Land Mortgage banks and Provisional Co-operative Banks provide credit to the farmers at cheap rate for carrying on their agricultural operations.

Central Bank

The Central Bank is at the head of the banking structure of a country. It controls monetary and banking activities of a country. The State Bank of Pakistan is the Central Bank of Pakistan.

Commercial Bank

Commercial Banks are those banks which deals in short-term credit. These banks accepts deposits from the public and make advances to their customers for short periods of time.

Industrial Bank

These banks provide long-term credit to industries, which require large amount of capital for purchasing land and buildings, machinery, tools and equipment, etc.

Fixed Deposit Account

Fixed Deposit Accounts are suits by those persons who want safety of funds and some rate of interest thereon. Fixed deposit carries a higher rate of interest than the saving banks account usually 11% -15% per anum.

CASE Dictionary

A repository for business rules, functional models and data models used for organizing and documenting an application development effort.

CASE Generator

A code generating tool that uses information stored in CASE Dictionary to develop data entry forms, reports and graphics.


A Database is a collection of information related to a particular subject or purpose, such as tracking customer orders or resources, management. It can also said as Database is an integrated collection of related data.

Data Model

A Data Model emphasizes features of interest to the user and makes its interaction with a Database Management System (DBMS) transparent.

Enterprise Manager

A GUI based collection of utilities for managing Oracle Databases.


Command line utilities that allow a user or the DBA to export data from an Oracle database into a machine readable file or to import data from a machine readable file into an Oracle database.

Integrated Data Dictionary

Stores and manages access to all of the tables owned by all users in a system.

Matrix Report

A matrix report appears like a columnar report, except that the column headings are retrieved as part of the database query.


Memory is where the information and instructions are stored. Mother board should have atleast 16 MB RAM .

Oracle Book

A graphical tool used to develop on-line documentation with hypertext capabilities.

Oracle Corporation

Oracle Corporation is the world’s second largest reputed software company, and the largest supplier of Relational Database Management Software. Oracle enhances the industry-leading technology with special features that make it extremely easy to create robust and scalable applications.

Oracle Designer/2000

A graphical tool used to create and display models contained in the CASE Dictionary.

Oracle Developer/2000

A suite of application development tools including Forms, Reports and Graphics.

Oracle Forms

Oracle Forms are a development tool that can be used to create applications to enter, access, change, or delete data from an Oracle database in an online, form-based environment. A screen based tool used to develop data entry forms and menus that access tables in an Oracle database.

Oracle Graphics

A graphical tool used to develop charts and reports that access tables in an Oracle database.

Oracle Object Navigator

The Object Navigator presents all the elements that combine to create an Oracle Forms application module.

Oracle ODBC Drivers

Open Database Connectivity drivers for connecting software to Oracle databases using the ODBC standard.

Oracle Reports

A screen based tool used to develop reports that access tables in an Oracle database.

Oracle Report Environment

Oracle Reports operates in a Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment such as Microsoft Windows. Functions may be performed by clicking iconic buttons or via menu picks.


Typically a part of the Oracle RDBMS running on a database server, this component receives requests from client machines and submits them to the Oracle RDBMS. The results are then passed back to the client machines.

Oracle Terminal

A utility program used to customize the user interface and keyboard mappings for all Oracle tools.


PL/SQL stands for Procedural Language/Structured Query Language enables software developers to use this procedural language interface to the Oracle RDBMS. Constructs within PL/SQL are similar to those found in a 3GL and C and provide a flexible method to manipulate database information.

RDBMS Components

Two important pieces of an RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the software, and the data dictionary, which consists of the system-level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database.


The relational model supports a single, "logical" structure called a relation, a two-dimensional data structure commonly called a table in the "physical" database.

Relational Database

Relational database is a type of database based in the relational model.

Relational Algebra

The relational model defines the operations that are permitted on a relation or group of relations. There are unary and binary relational operators, each of which result in another relation.

Risk Identification

Risk Identification is a systematic attempt to specify threats to the project plan estimates, schedule, resource loading, etc.


The RAMMM plan documents all work performed as part of risk analysis and is used by us as part of the overall Project Plan.

SQL Plus

A command line tool used to manipulate tables and other database objects in an Oracle database.


A utility that allows the database administrator (DBA) to monitor database activity and to tune the database for optimal performance.

SQL Loader

A command line utility to load ASCII or binary data files into an Oracle database.

SQL Net and Net8

A communications driver that allows an Oracle tool running on a client machine to access Oracle data on a separate server machine.


Structured Query Language (SQL) was introduced by IBM as the language to interface with its prototype relational database management system. The first commercially available SQL relational database management system was introduced in 1979 by Oracle Corporation. SQL is a non-procedural language, sets of records can be manipulated instead of one record at a time. The language used to access and manipulate database data.