Data Security is an area that is growing in importance as more business applications are being automated and more vital and sensitive information is being stored in the computer. Definition of Security is the property of authentication that persons, programs or system are accurately identified by a computing system. The vary meaning and content of the term database security have contained to evolved since 1960s. The initial concepts took from the privacy locks and privacy keys usually some fixed passwords type alpha-numeric strings. Today the term means as:
Confidentiality: Preventation of unauthorized disclosure of data. It includes secrecy as well as privacy.
Integrity: Preventation for modification or destruction of data.
The purpose for database security came from government need, particular military and intelligence requirement. Data security is determined by the presence of a set of protection features coupled with a measurement of the degree to which the protection feature can be assured to work correctly. The Database software that implements the database security features is called Trusted Database Software
A security flaws result from lack of opening or failure of confidentiality. Integrity, availability cause may be arise by humans, mechanical and environmental faults, as well as problems internal to the computing system. Risk analysis is performed by analyzing general threats to the security of the system i.e loss of electricity or programs destruction.
Beginning of Database technology to engineer, management, operational command and control systems of all types has improved both the efficiency and accuracy of these system by offering an automated method for the sharing a unified structured image of data essential to the system themselves. The task is to share data quickly, efficiently, modified, created in vast quantity. The maturation of database system technology will generate tools and techniques that allows such technology to be applied more frequently and more easily in system design and development effort CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) .
Organizations around the world are deploying distributed database and client/server applications in record numbers, often a national or global scale. Along with the increased distribution of data in these environments comes increase exposure to theft of the data through eaves dropping. Employees records, financial records, product testing information and other sensitive critical data have moved from filing cabinets into file structures. The Challenges to be faced are:
Data Integrity: ensuring the data is not modified during transmission
Data Privacy: ensuring that data is not disclosed during transmission
Authentication: Having confidence that users host, clients identities are correctly known.
Authorization: Giving permission to a user program or process to access an object or set of object
Grant/Revoke mechanism continues today as the primary SQL database tool for establishing discretionary access authorization to Relational Database object. Commercial database emphases data integrity, fraud preventation and the appropriate of data transactions rather than prevention of unauthorized data disclosure. Corporate has to spend hundreds of their revenue for taking necessary security steps. Major database system vendors offer a set of database protection feature with their database product. Advance database security within next millenium should have incorporation of more comprehensive security features. Steps should be taken to:
When a system has to be operated in multi-user environment then data of one user has to be secured from the data of another user. Thus the operator related with accounts should have the access to the data related with payroll.
For example in a company the permission of data granting can be understand as: The data view and information access given to a company boss is never be same as the permission given to sub-ordinates or receptionist
Some programs are design and developed to crack Data Security. A Trojan Horse is such a program that performs some function in addition to its expected advertised use. It copies stored files on a second device to which a malicious user has the access, it then also modify or delete the files.
The key for database security as it is for other aspects of system development, is to make sure that enough is present to meet the needs of the system being built or supported. One would not involve extra complexity, cost or time to provide unnecessary features or performance.